History of Charcoal 炭的歷史

The use of charcoal for medicinal purposes is ancient. In an Egyptian papyrus of 1550 B.C., various kinds of charcoal are specified for medicinal use.
。炭用作醫學的治療上巳有很悠久的歷史.遠至公元前1550的埃及古代文獻,炭巳特別用於不同的醫藥用途。

Over succeeding centuries, those who practiced as physicians believed greatly in the healing properties and therapeutic values of wood charcoal.
經過幾個世紀的歷史,不少執業的醫師也非常相信木炭的醫療價值。

In the times of Hippocrates (400 B.C.), and Pliny (50 A.D.), wood charcoal was used to treat epilepsy, vertigo, chlorosis, and anthrax. These practices gradually fell into disuses, but were still mentioned, often even into the nineteenth century.
在公元前400年希波格拉底和公元後50年普林尼的時代,木炭巳被用作醫治癲癇、眩暈、缺綠病和炭疽等病。雖然慢慢巳沒有人使用這些方法,但仍然有人提及這些炭的使用,甚至在十九世紀更經常被提及。

The discovery of how charcoal really works, that is, of the phenomenon of adsorption as we presently understand it, is generally attributed to Scheele, who in 1773 described some experiments on gases exposed to charcoal. The charcoal was found to adsorb many types of gases to a significant extent.
炭的真正功效被發現出來可歸功於吸附作用被人認識後。吸附作用是於1773年被瑞士化學家舍勒(Scheele)發現出來 舍勒(Scheele)通過不同的實驗,發現 氣體都會黏附在炭上。在很大的程度上,炭能夠吸附很多不同類型的氣體.

In the area of liquid phase systems, the earliest notice of adsorption seems to have been in 1785, when Lowitz observed that charcoal was used to clarify came sugar in a sugar refinery.
而在液體階段的層面上,最早被人發現吸附作用可說是盧偉斯( Lowitz ) 盧偉斯( Lowitz )1785年觀察到炭可以在精製糖的過程中起著淨化的作用。

During nineteenth century many attempts were made to produce decolorizing charcoals from other sources.
在十九世紀時,有很多嘗試希望能從其他物質生產一種能夠使物質脫色的炭。

In 1822, Bussy found that by heating blood with potash, an effective charcoal was produced.
1822年,巴斯( Bussy )發現將加入鉀鹼的血液加熱會產生一種很有效用的 炭。

Hunter, in 1865, reported on the great capacity of a charcoal derived from coconut shells for adsorbing gases.
1865年,亨特(Hunter)發現從椰殼當中所制出的炭能大量吸附氣體的。

Other charcoals were made by Lee, in 1863, from peat, by Winser and Swindells, in 1868, from paper mill wastes.
而有很多炭都是由(Lee)製成的。1863年,(Lee)永舍(Winser)史雲都斯(Swindells )的幫助下,用泥煤製造炭;在1868年,他更利用廢紙來製造。